מרכז ידע לאומי להשפעת הקרינה הבלתי-מייננת על הבריאות
مركز المعلومات القومي لتأثير الأشعة غير المؤينة على الصحة
The Israeli National Information Center for Non-Ionizing Radiation

ELF

Extremely Low Frequency and Electric Grids | Frequencies (*): <0Hz – 300hZ

Sources and Uses

  • Electric grids – residential, public, industrial and commercial buildings
    • National grid
    • Urban grid and distribution of electricity at street level
    • Internal grid in buildings – electricity supply to consumers
    • Domestic grid
  • Domestic equipment and electrical appliances
    • Refrigerator, kitchen oven, electric stove, Mixer, toaster, electric kettle, Washing machine, dryer, Boiler for heating water, Air-conditioner, electric heater, Shavers, electric chargers, Iron, TV, sound system, radio

 

 

 

 

 
  • Manufacturing machines, production lines
  • Electrical equipment in industrial facilities
  • Inter-urban electric railways
  • light rail, tram, metro/subway (**)
  • Electric vehicle, hybrid vehicle
  • High, subterranean and underwater power lines
  • Relay stations, central and large transformers, street transformers

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification

(**) In several frequency ranges

  • Street transformer
    Street transformer
  • Electricity relay station
    Electricity relay station
  • High power lines – urban electricity supply
    High power lines – urban electricity supply
  • Vehicle production line
    Vehicle production line
  • Electric car connected to charger
    Electric car connected to charger
  • Tram
    Tram

ULF

Ultra Low Frequency | Frequencies (*): 300Hz – 3kHz

Sources and Uses

  • Maritime communication antennas – communication between ships and submarines (above water)
  • Transmitters for emergency communication with mines – wireless communication through earth
  • Electric/hybrid vehicle
  • Magnetic levitating (Maglev) trains (electric current in the rails)
  • Tram/metro/subway and power lines for tram/metro/subway (**)
  • Earthquake prediction by radiofrequency (seismologic research)

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

 
  • Submarine antenna
    Submarine antenna
  • Maritime communication antenna
    Maritime communication antenna
  • Hybrid motor –petrol/electric
    Hybrid motor –petrol/electric
  • Hybrid vehicle - petrol/electricity-powered
    Hybrid vehicle - petrol/electricity-powered
  • Electric power lines for trams
    Electric power lines for trams
  • Magnetic levitating (Maglev) train (Japan)
    Magnetic levitating (Maglev) train (Japan)

VLF

Very Low Frequency | Frequencies (*): 3kHz-30kHz

Sources and Uses

  • Antennas for wireless communication with submarines (above the water) (**)
  • Navigation Systems for ships at sea
  • Systems for wireless monitoring of medical conditions (heart monitors)
  • Geological and geophysical research on transmission of radio waves through the ground
  • Signal transmission for international time zone synchronization (**)

       

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

 

  • Graph of wireless heart monitoring
    Graph of wireless heart monitoring
  • Ship navigation system antenna
    Ship navigation system antenna
  • International time zones - Berlin
    International time zones - Berlin

LF

Low frequency | Frequencies (*): 30kHz-300kHz

Sources and Uses

  • Civilian antennas and AM radio transmitters
  • Tactical military communication and contact systems
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)** - Electronic identification and tracking, tags and theft-prevention devices

 

  • Signal transmission for international time zone synchronization (**)
  • Transmission of data from weather-monitoring stations
  • Amateur radio (**)
 

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

 
  • Civilian broadcasting antennas
    Civilian broadcasting antennas
  • Military tactical communication antenna
    Military tactical communication antenna
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna
    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna
  • Circuit of identification and tracking tag (RFID)
    Circuit of identification and tracking tag (RFID)
  • Antenna for transmission of weather monitoring data
    Antenna for transmission of weather monitoring data

IF (*)

Intermediate Frequency | Frequencies (**): 300Hz-10MHz

Sources and Uses

  • Tactical Military Communication
  • Electronic identification and tracking systems – tags, theft-prevention devices and barcode devices (Radio Frequency Identification – RFID) (***)
    • Near Field Communication (NFC)
  • Industrial and military radiofrequency (RF) generators
  • Diagnostic and therapeutic tools in medicine
    • Cochlear implant (helical implant in the auditory canal)
    • Cardiac pacemaker
  • Heating units in industrial RF welding tools

 (*) IF is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as comprising frequencies from 300 Hz to  10 MHz, with an overlapping range within the  radiofrequency range from 3KHz to 10 MHz
(**) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(***) In several frequency ranges

  • Cochlear implant
    Cochlear implant
  • Automatic soldering machine
    Automatic soldering machine
  • Access control system
    Access control system
  • Identification and tracking tag
    Identification and tracking tag
  • Radiofrequency (RF) generator for electricity
    Radiofrequency (RF) generator for electricity
  • Cash withdrawal by Near Field Communication (NFC)
    Cash withdrawal by Near Field Communication (NFC)

MF

Medium Frequency | Frequencies (*): 300kHz – 3MHz

Sources and Uses

  • Civilian AM antennas and transmitters (**)
  • Shore-to-sea communication
  • Maritime communication and emergencies

 

  • Transmission of maritime meteorological data
  • Tracking station to locate sea craft at sea
  • All-directional transmission from beacons for sea craft navigation

 

 

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

 
  • Medium Frequency Communication Tower
    Medium Frequency Communication Tower
  • Shore-to-sea communication station
    Shore-to-sea communication station
  • Maritime control tower
    Maritime control tower
  • Sea craft locating station
    Sea craft locating station
  • Meteorological forecast data transmitters
    Meteorological forecast data transmitters
  • Maritime beacon
    Maritime beacon

HF

High Frequency | Frequencies (*): 3MHz-30MHz

Sources and Uses

  • Communication with no line of vision
    • Aviation communication  air to ground over the horizon (**)
    • Over the horizon radar
  • Maritime communication, sea to shore control stations
  • Emergency communications during distress at sea (**)

 

  • Global Maritime Distress and Safety System – GMDSS
  • Electronic identification and tracking systems – tags and theft-prevention devices (Radio Frequency Identification - RFID) (**)
  • Amateur radio (**)

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

 
  • Long-distance communication from a high mountain
    Long-distance communication from a high mountain
  • RF radar (old generation)
    RF radar (old generation)
  • Communications and control center on ship
    Communications and control center on ship
  • Maritime communications – coast guard
    Maritime communications – coast guard
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) circuit
    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) circuit
  • Communication over the horizon
    Communication over the horizon

VHF

Very High Frequency | Frequencies (*): 30MHz – 300MHz

Sources and Uses

  • Antennas for FM radio transmission
  • Antennas for TV transmission
  • Antennas of ships and maritime fleets
  • Airway and Seaway communications and control systems, fleet management
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems
  • Communication between aircraft and control bases and land-based control towers (**)
  • Geodesy
  • Data transmission from meteorological stations to weather forecasting centers
  • Amateur radio (**)

 

 

(*)   According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

  • TV broadcasting tower
    TV broadcasting tower
  • Long distance FM relays
    Long distance FM relays
  • Radio transmission array
    Radio transmission array
  • Amateur radio antenna
    Amateur radio antenna
  • Airway control tower – radio frequency
    Airway control tower – radio frequency
  • Hospital MRI equipment
    Hospital MRI equipment

UHF

Ultra High frequency | Frequencies (*): 300MHz – 3GHz

Sources and Uses

  • TV broadcasting antennas
  • Microwave line-of-vision antennas and communication
  • Cellular antennas and communication 
    • Cellular base stations, Mobile phones, smart phones, portable domestic phones
  • Antennas and components for wireless data communication networks
    • Wireless Local Area Network , Wireless access devices, Micro cell, Repeater, Router

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

  • Navigation instruments
    • Satellite navigation communication system (GPS – Global Positioning System)
    • Family Radio Service (FRS)
    • Direct two-way land communication - General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS)
  • Data communication equipment for computers
    • Laptop computers, Notebook, Tablets, printer, faximila,  Bluetooth
  • Microwave ovens
  • Walky-talky radio (transmission/reception)
  • Amateur radio (**)

 

 

 

 

 
  • Microwave oven
    Microwave oven
  • Mobile phone
    Mobile phone
  • Tablet
    Tablet
  • Laptop computer
    Laptop computer
  • walky-talky
    walky-talky
  • Router
    Router
  • Cellular site
    Cellular site
  • TV tower
    TV tower
  • Structural layers of a mobile phone
    Structural layers of a mobile phone

SHF

Super High Frequency | Frequencies (*): 3GHz – 30 GHz

Sources and Uses

  • Satellites
    • Civilian communication services
    • Commercial TV transmission satellite
    • Military intelligence and communication
  • High Frequency data transmission
    • Wireless data network: local area network (LAN) and wireless local area network (WLAN)
    • Wi-Fi at a frequency of 3 GHz or more
    • Wi-Max communication
  • Antennas of base stations and mobile phones – advanced generations and others being developed
  • Installations and relays for microwave communication

 

 

  • Communication antennas for new technologies
  • Advanced radar stations for location and tracking
    • Civilian airports
    • Military bases and units
  • Radar for vehicle accident prevention
  • Point-to-point microwave communication by directional antenna (**)
  • Industrial microwave ovens
  • Amateur radio (**)

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

 
  • Satellite Communication Station
    Satellite Communication Station
  • Military satellite
    Military satellite
  • Radio astronomy
    Radio astronomy
  • Communication and TV satellite
    Communication and TV satellite
  • Airport radar
    Airport radar
  • Advanced generation cellular antenna LTE+
    Advanced generation cellular antenna LTE+
  • Microwave communication station
    Microwave communication station
  • Military radar alignment
    Military radar alignment

EHF

Extremely High Frequency | Frequencies (*):30 GHz – 300 GHz

Sources and Uses:

  • Precise point-to-point wireless communication
    • Microwaves
    • Millimeter waves
  • Satellite transmission and reception antennas
    • Civilian systems
    • Military systems
    • Navigation
  • High energy-based weapon systems
  • Radar Millimeter waves
  • Remote sensing at microwave frequencies
  • High frequency microwave relays
  • Transmitters for data communication and point-to-point internet – high definition (HD) wireless technology (in development)
  • Radio astronomy research (**)
  • Amateur radio (**)

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification
(**) In several frequency ranges

  • Microwave and radio communications site
    Microwave and radio communications site
  • Modern navigation satellite
    Modern navigation satellite
  • Military satellite
    Military satellite
  • Space research satellite
    Space research satellite
  • Microwave communications and relay site
    Microwave communications and relay site
  • Space telescope
    Space telescope

IR

Infra Red Radiation | Frequencies: (*) 300GHz – 430THz

Sources and Uses

  • Sun light (52.7% of the radiation power from the sun reaching earth is IR)
  • Astronomic objects emitting IR radiation only or in addition to other radiation
  • Every object on earth emits IR radiation
  • The human and animal body emit IR radiation
  • Thermal heating – electric heaters, bonfires, fires
  • IR lasers for fiber-optic and wireless communication
    • Far IR communication: 1.53 -1.56 microns, Near IR radiation–fiber telecommunication 0.7-1.4 microns 
  • Computer and multimedia accessories
  • Thermal imaging (an alternative to X-ray imaging) – TeraHz frequencies
  • Measuring and diagnostics in engineering
  • IR-operated weapons
  • Night-vision instruments
  • Meteorology, astronomy, spectroscopy

 

(*) According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) classification 

 

 

 

  • The sun is a source of IR radiation
    The sun is a source of IR radiation
  • IR-guided anti-aircraft missile
    IR-guided anti-aircraft missile
  • Heating element
    Heating element
  • Hand-held IR laser
    Hand-held IR laser
  • Wireless mouse
    Wireless mouse
  • Galaxy emitting red and IR light
    Galaxy emitting red and IR light
  • IR radiation from human body
    IR radiation from human body
  • Bonfire heating through IR radiation
    Bonfire heating through IR radiation
  • Heat energy – earth's core
    Heat energy – earth's core

VIS

Visible Light | Frequencies (*): 430THz-790THz (380-700nm)

Sources and Uses

  • Light from the sun (44.5% of the solar power reaching the earth's surface is in the range of visible light)
  • Light from stars, galaxies and other astronomic objects
  • Hot metals, plasma, incandescent gases
    • Wire in incandescent light bulbs (tungsten)
    • Fluorescent lamps
    • Light-emitting diodes (LED)
  • TV and computer screens
    • Cathode ray tube (CRT), Light-emitting diodes (LED), new liquid-crystal display (LCD) screens, plasma
  • Human and animal vision
  • Optical communication
    • In the air
    • In optic fibers
  • Visible laser light
    • Medical applications (surgery, catheterization)
    • Industrial applications
    • Pointers
  • Solar cells for solar energy
  • Military applications
    • Laser-guided weapons
    • Individual guidance
  • Scientific research: astronomy, spectroscopy

 

 
  • Fluorescent light bulb
    Fluorescent light bulb
  • Incandescent light bulb
    Incandescent light bulb
  • Fiber optic cable
    Fiber optic cable
  • 3D LED screen
    3D LED screen
  • Flat LCD screen
    Flat LCD screen
  • Solar cells
    Solar cells
  • Green visible light laser
    Green visible light laser
  • Star light from the Milky Way galaxy
    Star light from the Milky Way galaxy

UV

Ultraviolet Radiation | Frequencies: 30PHz - 790THz (10-380nm)

Sources and Uses

  • Part of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun comprises  of 3 main types of UV radiation: UVA, UVB and UVC. The UV radiation reaching the earth's surface is about 95% of the UVA (wave lengths of 315-380nm). About 5% is UVB (280-315nm). Most of the UVB and the UVC (100-280nm) is absorbed by oxygen in the ozone layer. This radiation may also be emitted by artificial sources, such as halogen lamps
  • Extremely hot planets 
  • Gas-discharge lights: Fluorescent lamps 
  • Hygiene and well-being
    Bacterial purification: drinking water, sewage, medical sterilization
    Esthetic treatments: sunbeds, nail polish drying device 
  • UV-based solar cells applying advanced technology 
  • Therapeutic applications and medical treatments (teeth, skin) 
  • UV lasers
    • Industrial lasers: engraving, photolithography 
    • Lasers for research,lighting, communications
  • Military applications
  • Data and document security
  • Scientific research: astronomy, spectroscopy, medicine 
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Non-destructive investigation of internal structure of bodies 
  • Pool water disinfection
    Pool water disinfection
  • UV lamp
    UV lamp
  • Galaxy emitting blue light and UV
    Galaxy emitting blue light and UV
  • Nail polish drying device
    Nail polish drying device
  • Use of UV laser in dentistry
    Use of UV laser in dentistry
  • Sun bed
    Sun bed
  • UV laser
    UV laser

X-Rays

X-Rays - Röntgen Radiation | Frequencies: 30PHz-30EHz (0.01-10 nm)

Sources and Uses

  • ​Astronomic objects:
    Galaxies, binary stars, neutron stars emitting X-rays observable with the space telescope, Background X-radiation in the Milky Way galaxy
  • Vacuum tubes to produce X-rays for radiography
  • Ion accelerators to produce X-rays (cyclical particle accelerators): Synchrotron, Cyclotron
  • Scientific research: astronomy, spectroscopy, medicine
    • Study of crystal structure 
    • Computed tomography
    • X-radiation astronomy
    • Surface research, plasma physics, microscopy

 

  • Medicine and industry
    • Static diagnostic and dynamic imaging using computed tomography (CT)
    • Therapeutic CT radiography
    • Industrial CT radiography, investigation of internal structure of materials (non-destructive)
    • Security systems in airports
  • Military applications
  • X-ray emitting lasers for industry
  • Computed tomography (CT) equipment for medical imaging
    Computed tomography (CT) equipment for medical imaging
  • Part of the ion accelerator emits X-rays
    Part of the ion accelerator emits X-rays
  •  Images produced by computed tomography (CT)
    Images produced by computed tomography (CT)
  • Neutron star emits X-rays
    Neutron star emits X-rays
  • Airport security system
    Airport security system
  • Medical X-ray equipment
    Medical X-ray equipment

Gamma-Rays

Gamma radiation (Ɣ) | Frequencies: 30EHz – 300EHz (0.01nm-1pm)

Sources and Uses

  • Nuclear radioisotopes – applications according to production procedures
  • Mined non-enriched nuclear materials (uranium mines)
  • Enriched  radioisotopes for fission
  • Nuclear fission of radioactive material
    • Spontaneous (nuclear weapons)
    • Controlled (reactors)
  • Bursts of gamma rays from collapsing astronomical objects, collapsing galaxies
  • Gamma emission from collision of cosmic radiation with the atmosphere
  • Gamma emission from transformation of particles into electron-positron energy (annihilation)
  • Medical applications: sterilization, planned mutations, clinical monitoring and follow-up
  • Nuclear medicine – Radiotherapy
    • Treatment of tumors, medical tracers for radiography
    • single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) - 3D imaging in nuclear medicine
    • Positron emission tomography (PET) – tomography of energy released through positron-electron annihilation by gamma emissions (energy of 0.511MeV)
  • Industrial uses: tracers and measuring instruments based on radioactive Co-60 or Cs-137 (tracers), smoke detectors, industrial measurement probes
  • Non-destructive investigation of the internal structure of materials in the refining, mining, chemical, food, detergent and paper industries
  • Nuclear energy, nuclear reactors
  • Military applications, nuclear arms
  • Scientific research: astronomy, space, nuclear engineering, medicine

  

 

  • Nuclear reactor
    Nuclear reactor
  • Nuclear medicine – SPECT system
    Nuclear medicine – SPECT system
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) medical equipment
    Positron emission tomography (PET) medical equipment
  • Gamma bursts from a collapsing galaxy
    Gamma bursts from a collapsing galaxy
  • Nuclear explosion
    Nuclear explosion