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Cellular Antennas

Are there recommendations regarding living near a cellular base station?

Cellular base stations installed in residential areas are controlled by permits for installation and operation, issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.  These permits are issued in accordance with the recommendations of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health regarding exposure to radiation from cellular antennas.  The recommendations in Israel are more stringent than the international recommendations, and stipulate that the exposure to radiation from base stations, in areas where the public may be chronically exposed, must not exceed 1/10th of the recommended level determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)In areas where the public may spend a shorter amount of time the exposure permitted is 30% of the ICNIRP recommendations.


Surveys to assess the energy level in proximity to locations of cellular base stations in typical urban areas showed that at a distance of 50 m from the cellular base station, radiation usually drops to a few microwatts per cm2.  Adverse health effects of exposure to such low levels have not been established to date.

Cellular base station in residential area

Cellular base station in residential area


In any case, one can verify that exposure to non-ionizing radiation does not exceed the values set in the table in the Ministry of Environmental Protection's document (Hebrew), which summarizes the maximal exposure levels allowed for radiofrequency radiation.



How can one measure radiation from a cellular Antenna independently?

Anyone wishing to perform private measurements of radiation may do so, by summoning a professional radiation surveyor.  The Ministry of Environmental Protection publishes a list of persons authorized to perform radiation measurements, as well as a list of suppliers of measuring instruments.


Dosimeter - radiation measurement instrument

Dosimeter - radiation measurement instrument



What is the minimal distance allowed between a cellular base station antenna and a residential area?

The minimal distance between a cellular base station antenna and a residential area depends on various factors, and is determined according to intensity of emission, direction, height of the base station antenna, and other technical considerations.  Safety ranges change according to communications coverage in an area, which depends on the density of users in the given area.  This distance is authorized by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in accordance with the Non-Ionizing Radiation Law.


A cellular base station antenna  with symbolic radiation

A cellular base station antenna 
with symbolic radiation


For each station there is a minimal distance stipulated in the permit, at the front of the antenna in the direction of emission (horizontal minimal distance), as well as a vertical distance.  This means that the public is prohibited from entering the area within a distance shorter than the minimum allowed by the permit.



Where can one obtain information on cellular base stations?

The Ministry of Environmental Protection is responsible for issuing permits for the installation and operation of sources of radiation, including cellular base stations (by virtue of the Non-Ionizing Radiation Law (Hebrew). The Ministry updates the list of active antennas within cellular base stations monthly, and constantly monitors the emission densities of each antenna.

On the Ministry's website one can find an interactive map (Hebrew), from which one can obtain information on the date of installation, date of operation, and date of last measurement for each station (the address of the base station must be entered within the form).

In addition, the construction of a station requires obtaining a permit from the Committee for Planning and Construction of the Local Municipality (excluding cases where a building permit is not required).  Building permits may be verified at the local authority within whose jurisdiction the station is located.




Are there special guidelines regarding the use of radiation-emitting devices by children?

In general, the guidelines of the TNUDA center and the Ministry of Health regarding radiation-emitting devices are based on the precautionary principle, which aims to strike a balance between the developing technological needs of modern society and the degree of caution required to safeguard health.  The principal recommendation for reducing the level of radiation to the user is to place the source of radiation away from the body (for instance, by using earphones when talking on a mobile phone).

For children, it is recommended to follow strictly the general recommendations regarding the use of mobile phones, because children are more sensitive to developing illness following exposure to harmful agents.  This sensitivity is due to a number of factors:

  • Body tissues of children are developing, hence they are more sensitive to environmental hazards.

  • Children's life expectancy is long, so that they may accumulate significant amounts of exposure.This long life expectancy makes them vulnerable to developing diseases that manifest themselves several years after exposure (such as cancer, which may develop some 10-40 years or more after exposure to the harmful agent).

  • Exposure of children to radiation touches on ethical issues related to decision-making on behalf of minors.

In general, it is known that the degree of sensitivity of children to carcinogenic agents is inversely related to age: in other words, the younger the child, the greater the risk.

It should be mentioned that many parents allow their children, even babies, to use non-ionizing radiation-emitting devices, such as Tablets.  Even if the amount of radiation emitted by such devices is low, the use of non-ionizing radiation-emitting devices by children should be given due consideration in view of the above points.



Fifth Cellular Generation (5G)

Do the international radiation protection standards and guidelines address the health risks of the fifth cellular generation and the millimeter waves?

Yes. The leading international standards and guidelines for the protection of non-ionizing radiation (by the International Radiation Protection Association, ICNIRP and the IEEE Organization) relate to the non-ionizing radiation spectrum, up to 300 GHz, including the millimeter wave range and the existing and future cellular frequencies, including the fifth cellular generation mobile. Furthermore, the international standards and guidelines have recently been updated (2020) and are now reflecting scientific updates in exposure limits, especially in the high frequencies and the fifth generation technologies. The limitations are based on scientific updates and up-to-date physical models that provide a more accurate estimate of environmental exposure on the human body. In particular, they address the systems closest to the human body and short-pulse transmission (including thermal effects), especially for modern technologies that will use pulse transmission (such as the fifth cellular generation).

The International Committee for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has made it clear that in setting its latest radiation exposure limits it has examined all possible health effects, including non-thermal effects. Nevertheless, recommendations in respect of exposure limitations relate to health effects, which according to ICNIRP's position, are based on established adverse health effects, mainly thermal effects and neural excitation. ICNIRP's position is that exposure limits (thresholds) can only be established when there is well-based and solid scientific knowledge in regard of these effects. Therefore, no separate thresholds for long-term non-thermal effects have been established.

Which new technologies will be implemented in the fifth generation?

The fifth generation will use a number of advanced technologies to achieve the performance required from the network. These technologies include the use of numerous very small cellular cells, the use of higher frequencies and application of "beam steering" technologies and MIMO (Multiple In/Multiple Out).

For expansion of the new technologies implemented in the fifth cellular generation

Is the fifth generation cellular technology originally designated as a military technology using very high Intensities that are highly risky to people?

No. The fifth cellular generation is a cellular technology, representing a development of its previous cellular generations. It was intended for civilian and global uses for communication purposes only, and was not developed to meet military needs. It should be noted that, in general, many technologies previously designed for military and security uses have found their way to civilian uses in many diverse areas of our lives. The same is true for various technologies used in wireless communications, including cellular communications in its various generations, and the fifth generation in particular. However, this should not be implicated on the purpose of cellular technology and the degree of human risk.

The transmission power intended for the fifth cellular generation will be similar to those currently available, in previous cellular generations. The smaller cellular sites will even operate at lower powers. It is worth noting that the cellular communication is a short-range communication, and therefore does not require high transmission power, which is completely different from other military uses (such as military radars and various military systems, including weapon systems).

What is WHO’s attitude to the risks of the fifth cellular generation?

Below is a summary of the World Health Organization's recently published position, which is cited.

"To date, and after much research performed, no adverse health effect has been causally linked with exposure to wireless technologies. Health-related conclusions are drawn from studies performed across the entire radio spectrum but, so far, only a few studies have been carried out at the frequencies to be used by 5G.

Tissue heating is the main mechanism of interaction between radiofrequency fields and the human body. Radiofrequency exposure levels from current technologies result in negligible temperature rise in the human body.

As the frequency increases, there is less penetration into the body tissues and absorption of the energy becomes more confined to the surface of the body (skin and eye). Provided that the overall exposure remains below international guidelines, no consequences for public health are anticipated".

Will the high frequencies used in the fifth generation be more dangerous to human health?

The fifth cellular generation will also use higher frequencies, some in the millimeter wave (waves that are several millimeters long), to enable the required performance of the cellular network.

These frequencies are part of the electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation spectrum. They are used for various civil and military needs, and especially for short-range communications.

At present, there is no established information that indicates a unique risk of these frequencies compared to other frequencies in the non-ionizing radiation spectrum, including those used in current cellular generations. It should be noted that the radiation at these frequencies has a relatively small depth of penetration to the human body (the penetration is mainly to the skin tissues).

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified the non-ionizing radiation in all radio frequencies up to 300 GHz (including frequencies used in the existing cellular technologies and frequencies used in the fifth cellular generation) in category 2B - "possible carcinogen". Therefore, a basic principle that is recommended to protect against the health risks of non-ionizing radiation is the "precautionary principle".

In addition, this technology is not yet widely used, and there is not much public exposure to radiation at these frequencies. Therefore, there are a few studies on the effects of exposure to millimeter waves on human health, and further studies in the field are required (in laboratory conditions and population studies).